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How to detect VHD attached volume

In order to detect a volume is VHD attached, you can query its device descriptor using DeviceIoControl:

#include <windows.h>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
   if (argc < 2) {
      cerr << "Usage: FsUtil.exe file" << endl;
      return -1;
   auto const h = ::CreateFile(argv[1], GENERIC_READ, FILE_SHARE_READ, nullptr, OPEN_EXISTING, 0, nullptr);
      cerr << "Unable to open " << argv[1] << endl;
      return -2;
   STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY spq = { StorageDeviceProperty, PropertyStandardQuery };
   unsigned char b[1024];
   auto const btyped = reinterpret_cast<STORAGE_DEVICE_DESCRIPTOR *>(&b[0]);
   DWORD br;
   if (::DeviceIoControl(h, IOCTL_STORAGE_QUERY_PROPERTY, &spq, sizeof(spq), &b[0], sizeof(b), &br, nullptr) == FALSE) {
      cerr << "DeviceIoControl failed with " << ::GetLastError() << endl;
      return -3;
   auto const vendor = reinterpret_cast<LPCSTR>(b + btyped->VendorIdOffset);
   auto const product = reinterpret_cast<LPCSTR>(b + btyped->ProductIdOffset);
   cout << "Bus type: " << btyped->BusType << endl
        << "Vendor: " << vendor << endl
        << "Product: " << product << endl;
   return 0;

BusType would be BusTypeFileBackedVirtual, vendor - Msft, product - Virtual Disk.

Visual C++ versus new T[N] { 0 }

auto const p = std::unique_ptr(new unsigned char[1024 * 50] { 0 });

link.exe зависает, кушая при этом процессор.

auto const p = std::unique_ptr(new unsigned char[1024 * 50] { 0 });

Результат: fatal error C1063: compiler limit : compiler stack overflow

auto const p = std::unique_ptr(new unsigned char[1024] { 0 });

Сгенерированные инструкции:

00007FF6D1CF1A3A  call        operator new[] (07FF6D1CF1E30h)  
00007FF6D1CF1A3F  xor         ecx,ecx  
00007FF6D1CF1A41  test        rax,rax  
00007FF6D1CF1A44  je          wmain+383h (07FF6D1CF1D9Bh)  
00007FF6D1CF1A4A  mov         qword ptr [rax],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A4D  mov         qword ptr [rax+8],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A51  mov         qword ptr [rax+10h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A55  mov         qword ptr [rax+18h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A59  mov         qword ptr [rax+20h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A5D  mov         qword ptr [rax+28h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A61  mov         qword ptr [rax+30h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A65  mov         qword ptr [rax+38h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A69  mov         qword ptr [rax+40h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A6D  mov         qword ptr [rax+48h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A71  mov         qword ptr [rax+50h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A75  mov         qword ptr [rax+58h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A79  mov         qword ptr [rax+60h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A7D  mov         qword ptr [rax+68h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A81  mov         qword ptr [rax+70h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A85  mov         qword ptr [rax+78h],rcx  
00007FF6D1CF1A89  mov         qword ptr [rax+80h],rcx  

Заполнение пасяти нулями шмомпилятор от Быдлософт развернул в 128 инструкций mov.

То же, но компилятором Intel C++:

00007FF755B1102B  call        operator new[] (07FF755B13C50h)  
00007FF755B11053  call        _intel_fast_memcpy (07FF755B11B50h)  

_intel_fast_memcpy для моего Core i5 2XXX выбрала реализацию с циклом следующего вида:

00007FF755B132A0  movdqa      xmm0,xmmword ptr [rdx]  
00007FF755B132A4  movdqa      xmm1,xmmword ptr [rdx+10h]  
00007FF755B132A9  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx],xmm0  
00007FF755B132AD  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+10h],xmm1  
00007FF755B132B2  lea         r8,[r8-80h]  
00007FF755B132B6  movdqa      xmm2,xmmword ptr [rdx+20h]  
00007FF755B132BB  movdqa      xmm3,xmmword ptr [rdx+30h]  
00007FF755B132C0  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+20h],xmm2  
00007FF755B132C5  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+30h],xmm3  
00007FF755B132CA  movdqa      xmm0,xmmword ptr [rdx+40h]  
00007FF755B132CF  movdqa      xmm1,xmmword ptr [rdx+50h]  
00007FF755B132D4  cmp         r8,0A8h  
00007FF755B132DB  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+40h],xmm0  
00007FF755B132E0  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+50h],xmm1  
00007FF755B132E5  movdqa      xmm2,xmmword ptr [rdx+60h]  
00007FF755B132EA  movdqa      xmm3,xmmword ptr [rdx+70h]  
00007FF755B132EF  lea         rdx,[rdx+80h]  
00007FF755B132F6  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+60h],xmm2  
00007FF755B132FB  movdqa      xmmword ptr [rcx+70h],xmm3  
00007FF755B13300  lea         rcx,[rcx+80h]  
00007FF755B13307  jge         __intel_memcpy+0E90h (07FF755B132A0h)  

А если выбрать Favor Small Code в настройках компилятора, то заполнение нулями превращается в ожидаемый и привычный rep movs:

00007FF615041053  rep movs    qword ptr [rdi],qword ptr [rsi]

Nosgoth beta keys




WinDbg: find probable CONTEXT records

This script finds and pretty prints all probable CONTEXT struct instances throughout x64 process address space:

0:000> .foreach ( CxrPtr { s -[w1]b 0x00000000000000000 L?FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 2b 00 2b 00 53 00 2b 00 } ) { .cxr ${CxrPtr}-@@(#FIELD_OFFSET(ntdll!_CONTEXT, SegDs)) }
rax=000000000f2907e0 rbx=00000001420b70f0 rcx=0000000010c3d130
rdx=0000000010c3cad8 rsi=00000001420b7d08 rdi=000000013fda9cb0
rip=000007fe99e71cc9 rsp=0000000010c3e850 rbp=0000000010c3e870
 r8=0000000010c2a000  r9=000000000f2907e0 r10=000007fef6bd6738
r11=0000000000000001 r12=0000000140e4fb00 r13=000000033fcc69f8
r14=0000000010c3f098 r15=0000000000000004
iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz na pe nc
cs=0033  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000202
000007fe`99e71cc9 8a4510          mov     al,byte ptr [rbp+10h] ss:00000000`10c3e880=00


rax=000000004685a478 rbx=0000000241d02878 rcx=0000000000000000
rdx=0000000000000000 rsi=0000000241c9d708 rdi=0000000241d02838
rip=000007fe9d9d39f4 rsp=000000004685a450 rbp=000000004685a4a0
 r8=0000000441b49850  r9=0000000000000000 r10=000007fe9b1e1ac0
r11=0000000441b49870 r12=0000000241c90e88 r13=000007fe9b299448
r14=00000001406cc858 r15=0000000441b24af0
iopl=0         nv up ei pl nz na po nc
cs=0033  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00010206
000007fe`9d9d39f4 803900          cmp     byte ptr [rcx],0 ds:00000000`00000000=??

Then you would normally use RIP and RSP registers to find relevant code and thread context:

0:000> !IP2MD 000007fe99e71cc9 
MethodDesc:   000007fe98e229c0
Method Name:  Replay.Core.Implementation.AutomaticUpdate.PatchDetector.IsPatched(System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo)
Class:        000007fe98dec4a0
MethodTable:  000007fe98e22a70
mdToken:      0000000006000463
Module:       000007fe988acb20
IsJitted:     yes
CodeAddr:     000007fe99e71c50
Transparency: Critical

0:000> !IP2MD 000007fefde1940d  
Failed to request MethodData, not in JIT code range
0:000> ln 000007fefde1940d
(000007fe`fde193d0)   KERNELBASE!RaiseException+0x39   |  (000007fe`fde19420)   KERNELBASE!CreateMutexExW

0:000> !address 000000004685a450

Mapping file section regions...
Mapping module regions...
Mapping PEB regions...
Mapping TEB and stack regions...
Mapping heap regions...
Mapping page heap regions...
Mapping other regions...
Mapping stack trace database regions...
Mapping activation context regions...

Usage:                  Stack
Base Address:           00000000`46852000
End Address:            00000000`46860000
Region Size:            00000000`0000e000
State:                  00001000 MEM_COMMIT
Protect:                00000004 PAGE_READWRITE
Type:                   00020000 MEM_PRIVATE
Allocation Base:        00000000`46460000
Allocation Protect:     00000004 PAGE_READWRITE
More info:              ~88k

0:000> ~88k
Child-SP          RetAddr           Call Site
00000000`4685ed48 000007fe`fde110dc ntdll!NtWaitForSingleObject+0xa
00000000`4685ed50 000007fe`f7e89622 KERNELBASE!WaitForSingleObjectEx+0x79
00000000`4685edf0 000007fe`f7e89841 clr!CLRSemaphore::Wait+0x8a
00000000`4685eeb0 000007fe`f7e897ec clr!ThreadpoolMgr::UnfairSemaphore::Wait+0x134
00000000`4685eef0 000007fe`f7d733de clr!ThreadpoolMgr::WorkerThreadStart+0x204
00000000`4685efb0 00000000`77a959ed clr!Thread::intermediateThreadProc+0x7d
00000000`4685fb70 00000000`77ccc541 kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xd
00000000`4685fba0 00000000`00000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x1d

Apple Swift

Windows Internals 7th edition

March 13, 2015

KiPageFault into BSOD when stepping over

I've been struggling long time with weird bug check during kernel driver debugging. Stack trace would look like this:

1: kd> k
Child-SP          RetAddr           Call Site
ffffd000`20463d78 fffff800`1aa610ea nt!DbgBreakPointWithStatus
ffffd000`20463d80 fffff800`1aa609fb nt!KiBugCheckDebugBreak+0x12
ffffd000`20463de0 fffff800`1a9d8da4 nt!KeBugCheck2+0x8ab
ffffd000`204644f0 fffff800`1aa00b1f nt!KeBugCheckEx+0x104
ffffd000`20464530 fffff800`1a8c75ad nt! ?? ::FNODOBFM::`string'+0x1797f
ffffd000`204645d0 fffff800`1a9e2f2f nt!MmAccessFault+0x7ed
ffffd000`20464710 fffff800`002b92e3 nt!KiPageFault+0x12f
ffffd000`204648a0 fffff800`0117b41f Wdf01000!imp_WdfFdoInitQueryProperty+0x28
ffffd000`204648f0 fffff800`0118117f MyVolFlt!WdfFdoInitQueryProperty+0x5f [c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\8.1\include\wdf\kmdf\1.13\wdffdo.h @ 217]
ffffd000`20464940 fffff800`0027f55b MyVolFlt!MyVolFltEvtDeviceAdd+0x9f [c:\development\projects\kernelmode\myvolflt\driver.c @ 116]
ffffd000`20464bd0 fffff800`1a9539d9 Wdf01000!FxDriver::AddDevice+0xab
ffffd000`20464ff0 fffff800`1ace18ab nt!PpvUtilCallAddDevice+0x35
ffffd000`20465030 fffff800`1acdff9e nt!PnpCallAddDevice+0x63
ffffd000`204650b0 fffff800`1acdf2db nt!PipCallDriverAddDevice+0x6e2
ffffd000`20465250 fffff800`1ad14b89 nt!PipProcessDevNodeTree+0x1cf
ffffd000`204654d0 fffff800`1a97d0b8 nt!PiProcessReenumeration+0x91
ffffd000`20465520 fffff800`1a97cf2e nt!PnpDeviceActionWorker+0x168
ffffd000`204655d0 fffff800`1af93382 nt!PnpRequestDeviceAction+0x1da
ffffd000`20465610 fffff800`1af89022 nt!IopInitializeBootDrivers+0x83e
ffffd000`204658b0 fffff800`1af7794d nt!IoInitSystem+0x91e
ffffd000`204659d0 fffff800`1ad7bd09 nt!Phase1InitializationDiscard+0xe61
ffffd000`20465bd0 fffff800`1a9182e4 nt!Phase1Initialization+0x9
ffffd000`20465c00 fffff800`1a9df2c6 nt!PspSystemThreadStartup+0x58
ffffd000`20465c60 00000000`00000000 nt!KiStartSystemThread+0x16

Bug Check description:

   1: kd> !analyze -v
*                                                                             *
*                        Bugcheck Analysis                                    *
*                                                                             *
Invalid system memory was referenced.  This cannot be protected by try-except,
it must be protected by a Probe.  Typically the address is just plain bad or it
is pointing at freed memory.
Arg1: ffffe00020464c10, memory referenced.

Now lets see what is this address:

1: kd> !pool ffffe00020464c10
Pool page ffffe00020464c10 region is Nonpaged pool
ffffe00020464000 is not a valid large pool allocation, checking large session pool...
Unable to read large session pool table (Session data is not present in mini and kernel-only dumps)
ffffe00020464000 is not valid pool. Checking for freed (or corrupt) pool
Address ffffe00020464000 could not be read. It may be a freed, invalid or paged out page
1: kd> ? poi(DeviceInit)
Evaluate expression: -35183830610928 = ffffe000`20464c10

Wow, faulting memory references is DeviceInit actually! And it is located on stack (because of KMDF model).

Sure IRQL is at PASSIVE level:

1: kd> !irql
Debugger saved IRQL for processor 0x1 -- 0 (LOW_LEVEL)

The funniest thing so far is that if I set bp after the call to WdfFdoInitQueryProperty - it would run smoothly. So there is something wrong with the debugger interacting OS kernel.

Now I finally managed to figure out what was wrong. I would normally set my bp during initial break-in sequence:

Connected to Windows 8 9600 x64 target at (Thu Jan 16 00:54:33.435 2014 (UTC + 2:00)), ptr64 TRUE
Kernel Debugger connection established.
************* Symbol Path validation summary **************
Response                         Time (ms)     Location
Deferred                                       cache*C:\Development\Tools\Symbols
Deferred                                       srv*
Symbol search path is: cache*C:\Development\Tools\Symbols;srv*
Executable search path is: 
Windows 8 Kernel Version 9600 MP (1 procs) Free x64
Built by: 9600.16452.amd64fre.winblue_gdr.131030-1505
Machine Name:
Kernel base = 0xfffff800`5547e000 PsLoadedModuleList = 0xfffff800`55742990
System Uptime: 0 days 0:00:00.102
fffff800`555d28e5 cc              int     3
kd> bp MyVolFltEvtDeviceAdd
kd> g

And here what happens after:

Unload module \SystemRoot\system32\mcupdate_GenuineIntel.dll at fffff800`1b200000
Unload module \SystemRoot\System32\drivers\werkernel.sys at fffff800`19ed5000
Unload module \SystemRoot\system32\DRIVERS\MyVolFlt.sys at fffff800`1b9ed000
fffff800`555d28e5 cc              int     3
kd> k
 # Child-SP          RetAddr           Call Site
00 fffff800`573991a8 fffff800`55544361 nt!DebugService2+0x5
01 fffff800`573991b0 fffff800`555442ff nt!DbgLoadImageSymbols+0x45
02 fffff800`57399200 fffff800`55b76fc4 nt!DbgLoadImageSymbolsUnicode+0x2b
03 fffff800`57399240 fffff800`55b7684b nt!MiReloadBootLoadedDrivers+0x300
04 fffff800`573993c0 fffff800`55b6c091 nt!MiInitializeDriverImages+0x163
05 fffff800`57399470 fffff800`55b67299 nt!MiInitSystem+0x3d9
06 fffff800`57399500 fffff800`557e84ea nt!InitBootProcessor+0x301
07 fffff800`57399740 fffff800`557de1a3 nt!KiInitializeKernel+0x5a2
08 fffff800`57399ad0 00000000`00000000 nt!KiSystemStartup+0x193

It is unloading boot time drivers! And reloading with different start addresses! So when I set my breakpoint at MyVolFltEvtDeviceAdd, WinDbg would insert int 3 instruction and during module relocation that instruction is copied as is. So my breakpoint actually hits, despite code relocation. But this is where the Windows and debugger fall apart - they don't know about this breakpoint.

In order to issue correct breakpoint address, you must break on module load:

kd> sxe ld MyVolFlt
kd> sxe ud MyVolFlt
kd> sx
  ct - Create thread - ignore
  et - Exit thread - ignore
 cpr - Create process - ignore
 epr - Exit process - ignore
  ld - Load module - break
       (only break for myvolflt)
  ud - Unload module - break
       (only break for MyVolFlt)

And issue bp command after kernel reloads boot loaded drivers.

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